Ring-necked parakeet, Indian ringneck parrot
The Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the few parrot species that have successfully adapted to living in disturbed habitats. As a popular pet species, escaped birds have colonized a number of cities around the world, including Northern and Western Europe. These parakeets are also capable of living in a variety of climates outside their native range and are able to survive low winter temperatures in Northern Europe. The species is not threatened, but its popularity as a pet and unpopularity with farmers have reduced its numbers in some parts of its native range.
The Rose-ringed parakeet is a medium-sized parrot. The adult male sports a red and black neck ring, and the hen and immature birds of both sexes either show no neck rings or display shadow-like pale to dark grey neck rings. Both sexes have a distinctive green color in the wild, and captive-bred ringnecks have multiple color mutations including blue, violet, and yellow.
Rose-ringed parakeets are native to Africa and South Asia. They don't migrate and live in a wide variety of habitats. They can be found in grasslands, savanna, shrubland, rainforests, mangroves, and wetlands. These birds also occur in rural gardens and agricultural areas.
Rose-ringed parakeets are social birds. They are active during the day spending their time, foraging, flying about, and resting in the shades of tree canopy during midday hours. They often gather in flocks that fly several miles to forage in farmlands and orchards. Rose-ringed parakeets are very noisy and have an unmistakable squawking call.
Rose-ringed parakeets are herbivores and usually feed on buds, fruits, vegetables, nuts, berries, and seeds. In India, they eat cereal grains, and during winter also pigeon peas. In Egypt during the spring, they feed on mulberry, and in summer they feed on dates and eat from sunflower and corn fields.
Rose-ringed parakeets are serially monogamous; they do not have life mates and often breed with another partner during the following breeding season. In northwest India, Rose-ringed parakeets form pairs from September to December. During this cold season, they select and defend nest sites, thus avoiding competition for sites with other birds. The female lays 1 to 7 eggs and incubates them alone for about 3 weeks. The chick hatch altricial meaning they are helpless and depend on their parents for feeding and protection. The young fledge at 7 weeks of age and become independent when they are 2 years old. Reproductive maturity is usually reached at the age of 3 years.
The population of the Rose-ringed parakeet appears to be increasing, but its popularity as a pet and unpopularity with farmers have reduced its numbers in some parts of its native range.
According to IUCN, the Rose-ringed parakeet is common and widespread throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available. However, there are estimates of its populations in Japan which includes around 100-10,000 introduced breeding pairs. Currently, the Rose-ringed parakeet is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List, and its numbers today are increasing.