São Tomé and Príncipe is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 150 km apart and about 250 and 225 km off the north-western coast of Gabon. With a population of 201,800, São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African sovereign state after Seychelles.
The country's territory is part of the São Tomé, Príncipe, and Annobón moist lowland forests ecoregion. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.64/10, ranking it 68th globally out of 172 countries.São Tomé and Príncipe does not have a large number of native mammals, The islands are home to a larger number of endemic birds and plants, including the world's smallest ibis, the world's largest sunbird, the rare São Tomé fiscal, and several giant species of Begonia.São Tomé and Príncipe is an important marine turtle-nesting site, including the hawksbill turtles,