Gray langurs, also called Hanuman langurs or Hanuman monkeys, are Old World monkeys native to the Indian subcontinent constituting the genus Semnopithecus. Traditionally only one species Semnopithecus entellus was recognized, but since about 2001, additional species have been recognized. The taxonomy has been in flux, but currently eight species are recognized.
Gray langurs are fairly terrestrial, inhabiting forest, open lightly wooded habitats, and urban areas on the Indian subcontinent. Most species are found at low to moderate altitudes, but the Nepal gray langur and Kashmir gray langur occur up to 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in the Himalayas.
The entire distribution of all gray langur species stretches from the Himalayas in the north to Sri Lanka in the south, and from Bangladesh in the east to Pakistan in the west. They possibly occur in Afghanistan. The bulk of the gray langur distribution is within India, and all seven currently recognized species have at least a part of their range in this country.
Gray langurs can adapt to a variety of habitats. They inhabit arid habitats like deserts, tropical habitats like tropical rainforests and temperate habitats like coniferous forests, deciduous habitats and mountains habitats. They are found at sea level to altitudes up to 4,000 m (13,000 ft). They can adapt well to human settlements, and are found in villages, towns and areas with housing or agriculture. They live in densely populated cities like Jodhpur, which has a population numbering up to a million.