Somalia is a country in the Horn of Africa. The country is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland. Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and highlands. Hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around 15 million.
Somalia contains a variety of mammals due to its geographical and climatic diversity. Wildlife still occurring includes cheetah, lion, reticulated giraffe, baboon, serval, elephant, bushpig, gazelle, ibex, kudu, dik-dik, oribi, Somali wild ass, reedbuck and Grévy's zebra, elephant shrew, rock hyrax, golden mole and antelope. It also has a large population of the dromedary camel.
Somalia is home to around 727 species of birds. Of these, eight are endemic, one has been introduced by humans, and one is rare or accidental. Fourteen species are globally threatened. Birds species found exclusively in the country include the Somali Pigeon, Alaemon hamertoni, Lesser Hoopoe-Lark, Heteromirafra archeri, Archer's Lark, Mirafra ashi, Ash's Bushlark, Mirafra somalica, Somali Bushlark, Spizocorys obbiensis, Obbia Lark, Carduelis johannis, and Warsangli Linnet.
Somalia's territorial waters are prime fishing grounds for highly migratory marine species, such as tuna. A narrow but productive continental shelf contains several demersal fish and crustacean species. Fish species found exclusively in the nation include Cirrhitichthys randalli, Symphurus fuscus, Parapercis simulata OC, Cociella somaliensis OC, and Pseudochromis melanotus,
There are roughly 235 species of reptiles. Of these, almost half live in the northern areas. Reptiles endemic to Somalia include the Hughes' saw-scaled viper, the Southern Somali garter snake, a racer, a diadem snake, the Somali sand boa, the angled worm lizard, a spiny-tailed lizard, Lanza's agama, a gecko, the Somali semaphore gecko, and a sand lizard, A colubrid snake and Haacke-Greer's skink are endemic species.