Greater slow loris
The Sunda slow loris (Nycticebus coucang ) or greater slow loris is a strepsirrhine primate and a species of slow loris native to Indonesia, West Malaysia, southern Thailand and Singapore. It measures 27 to 38 cm (11 to 15 in) from head to tail and weighs between 599 and 685 g (21.1 and 24.2 oz). Like other slow lorises, it has a wet nose (rhinarium), a round head, small ears hidden in thick fur, a flat face, large eyes and a vestigial tail.Show More
The Sunda slow loris is nocturnal and arboreal, typically occurring in evergreen forests. It prefers rainforests with continuous dense canopies and has an extremely low metabolic rate compared to other mammals of its size. Its diet consists of sap, floral nectar, fruit and arthropods. It will feed on exudates such as gum and sap by licking wounds in trees. The species is generally solitary; one study showed only 8% of its active time was spent near other individuals. Social behavior makes up a very small part of the activity budget, though it has monogamous mating system with the offspring living with the parents. It sleeps during the day, rolled up in a ball in hidden parts of trees above the ground, often on branches, twigs, palm fronds, or lianas. The species is polyoestrous, usually giving birth to a single offspring after a gestation period of 192 days. The young disperses between 16 and 27 months, generally when it is sexually mature.
The species is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List. It is threatened with extinction due to a growing demand in the exotic pet trade, and has become one of the most abundant primate species on sale at Indonesian pet markets. Its teeth are often pulled out before being sold as pets which can result in infection and/or death, this process makes reintroduction to the wild impossible. It also suffers from habitat loss, which has been severe in the areas in which it is found.Show Less
The Sunda slow loris is an arboreal venomous primate native to Southeastern Asia. Like other slow lorises, it has a wet nose (rhinarium), a round head, small ears hidden in thick fur, a flat face, large eyes, and a vestigial tail. The Sunda slow loris has dark rings around its large eyes, a white nose with a whitish stripe that extends to the forehead, and a dark stripe that stretches from the back of the head along the spine. Its soft, thick, woolly fur ranges from light brown to deep reddish-brown, with a lighter underside.
Sunda slow lorises are found in Indonesia, on the islands of Sumatra, Batam, and Galang in the Riau Archipelago, and Pulau Tebingtinggi and Great Natuna (Bunguran) in the Natuna Islands; in Malaysia on the Malay Peninsula and Pulau Tioman; in the southern peninsular of Thailand; and Singapore. They prefer to live in rainforests with continuous dense canopies and will also live in other types of habitat.
Sunda slow lorises are nocturnal primates that rest by day in the forks of trees, or in thick vegetation and feed by night. Unlike other loris species, they remain in trees most of their life and sleep in a ball in branches or foliage. They usually sleep alone but may sleep with several conspecifics (individuals of the same species), including other adults. When threatened with predators, Sunda slow lorises can bite, roll into a ball exposing their toxic saliva-covered fur, or roll up and drop from the trees. However, the primary method of predator avoidance is crypsis (camouflage), whereby it hides. There are eight distinct call types made by Sunda slow loris adults, which can be divided into two categories: contact and contact-seeking calls such as whistles and short keckers (a social play and attention-seeking call), and aggressive and defensive calls such as long keckers, screams, snarls and grunts. Because they rely on crypsis to avoid predators, Sunda slow lorises do not make alarm calls. Infants emit clicks and squeaks when disturbed. During the mating season, females make whistle calls when in visual contact with a male. When exploring new environments and during handling, these animals make ultrasonic vocalizations out of the human hearing range.
Sunda slow lorises are omnivores. They eat sap, floral nectar and nectar-producing plant parts, and fruits. They also consume gums and arthropods such as spiders and insects. Gum is taken by licking wounds on trees. Sunda slow lorises are also known to feed on mollusks, including the giant land snail, and birds' eggs.
In the wild, the mating system of the Sunda slow loris is thought to vary between populations. These primates are polyestrous, having many breeding periods during the year. The gestation period usually lasts about 192 days, after which one infant is born, although twinning has been observed. Baby slow lorises are weaned from their mother at 3-6 months of age and become independent when they are between 16 and 27 months old. Reproductive maturity is reached between the ages of 18 and 24 months in females and can be reached by 17 months in males.
The Sunda slow loris is threatened with extinction due to growing demand in the exotic pet trade and has become one of the most abundant primate species on sale at Indonesian pet markets. Its teeth are often pulled out before being sold as pets which can result in infection and/or death, this process makes reintroduction to the wild impossible. It also suffers from habitat loss, which has been severe in the areas in which it is found. Sunda slow lorises are further threatened by gathering for illegal traditional medicine. Their fur is reported to heal wounds, the flesh to cure epilepsy, eyes are used in love potions, and the meat is reported to cure asthma and stomach problems. They are also killed as crop pests.
The IUCN Red List and other sources don’t provide the number of the Sunda slow loris total population size. Currently, this species is classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are decreasing.