The Visayan spotted deer is a nocturnal and endangered species of deer. It is easily distinguished from other species of deer in the Philippines by the distinctive "A" pattern of beige spots which dot its deep brown back and sides. Other distinctive features include cream underparts and white fur on the chin and lower lip. The animal's head and neck are brown but lighter than the body, and the eyes are ringed with paler fur. Males are larger than females and have short, thick, bumpy antlers.
Visayan spotted deers are found only in the rainforests of the Visayan islands of Panay and Negros of the central Philippines. Their habitat is in dense cogon grassland, and primary and secondary forest. They may also visit burnt-out forest clearings for the floral ash.
Visayan spotted deer are nocturnal and come out at dusk to feed. They are very cryptic and cautious animals and will quickly hide into dense vegetation when they sense any danger. They are usually seen singly and or in small groups of up 3 individuals.
Visayan spotted deer breed from November to December, although mating could begin earlier. Males have a roaring call to attract females. Reports mostly mention a single calf with a mated pair, although conclusive evidence on the number of young is not available because of the rarity of sightings. Calves are born after a gestation period of around 240 days. Weaning takes place at 6 months and the calves are mature from 12 months.
Hunting and forest clearances as a result of logging activities and agricultural conversion are thought to be the causes of a devastating drop in the numbers of Visayan deer. Hunting, both by locals and sport hunters has also made an impact; subsistence hunting, sales of venison to local markets and specialty restaurants, and live trapping for the pet trade have all contributed to the species' dwindling numbers. Isolation and reduction of the population are likely to have led to some herds becoming moribund.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of the Visayan spotted deer is 700 mature individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are decreasing.