Endemic Animals of Sri Lanka








Red Slender Loris
Red Slender Loris
The Red slender loris has a curious appearance, being a small primate with very big red eyes, rounded ears, and arms and legs which are long and slim. Its large eyes that face forward, giving it excellent night vision as well as superb depth perception. It uses its hands and feet skillfully and they are well adapted to climbing amongst the trees of its habitat. They have an opposable big toe on each foot, producing a pincer-like grip.
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Red Slender Loris
Toque Macaque
Toque Macaque
This smallest macaque is a native Sri Lankan species with a golden-brown fur. The local people call Toque Macaque the “Rilawa”. The most characteristic feature of this primate is the toque-like swirl of hair on its head top. As a matter of fact, their physiological characteristics vary greatly, depending on climatic conditions. Thus, populations in cooler climate exhibit thick, dark brown coat as well as relatively short limbs and tails. Mea ...
nwhile, those inhabiting lowland rainforests typically display reddish or golden fur and longer bonnets. Populations in drier habitats have lighter fur, noticeably longer legs and tails as well as shorter swirl of hair on their head.
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Toque Macaque
Purple-Faced Langur
Purple-Faced Langur
The Purple-faced langur is an endangered long-tailed arboreal monkey that can be found only in Sri Lanka. It is identified by a mostly brown appearance, dark face (with paler lower face), and very shy nature. Males of this species are usually larger than females.
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Purple-Faced Langur
Sri Lankan junglefowl
Sri Lankan junglefowl
The Sri Lankan junglefowl, also known as the Ceylon junglefowl or Lafayette's junglefowl, is a member of the Galliformes bird order which is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it is the national bird. It is closely related to the red junglefowl, the wild junglefowl from which the chicken was domesticated. However, a whole-genome molecular study rather show that Sri Lankan junglefowl and grey junglefowl are genetically sister species than with the red ...
junglefowl. Sri Lankan junglefowl and red junglefowl diverged about 2.8 million years ago whereas, time of divergence between the Sri Lankan junglefowl and grey junglefowl was 1.8 million years ago. Evidence of introgressive hybridization from Sri Lanka junglefowl has also been established in domestic chicken. The specific name of the Sri Lankan junglefowl commemorates the French aristocrat Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette. Gallus       Grey junglefowl – Gallus sonneratii     Sri Lankan junglefowl – Gallus lafayettii       Red junglefowl – Gallus gallus       Green junglefowl – Gallus varius     Cladogram showing the species in the genus Gallus.
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Sri Lankan junglefowl
Sri Lankan leopard
Sri Lankan leopard
The Sri Lankan leopard is a leopard subspecies native to Sri Lanka. It was first described in 1956 by Sri Lankan zoologist Paules Edward Pieris Deraniyagala. Since 2020, the Sri Lankan leopard has been listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as the population is estimated at less than 800 mature individuals, and is probably declining.
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Sri Lankan leopard
Sri Lankan lion
Sri Lankan lion
The Sri Lankan lion, also known as the Ceylonese lion, is an extinct prehistoric subspecies of lion, excavated in Sri Lanka. It is believed to have become extinct prior to the arrival of culturally modern humans, c. 37,000 years BC. This lion is only known from two teeth found in deposits at Kuruwita. Based on these teeth, P. Deraniyagala proposed this subspecies in 1939. However, there is insufficient information to determine how it might ...
differ from other subspecies of lion. Deraniyagala did not explain explicitly how he diagnosed the holotype of this subspecies as belonging to a lion, though he justified its allocation to a distinct subspecies of lion by its being "narrower and more elongate" than those of recent lions in the British Natural History Museum collection.
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Sri Lankan lion
Sri Lankan sloth bear
Sri Lankan sloth bear
The Sri Lankan sloth bear is a subspecies of the sloth bear which is found mainly in lowland dry forests in the island of Sri Lanka.
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Sri Lankan sloth bear
Sri Lanka blue magpie
Sri Lanka blue magpie
The Sri Lanka blue magpie or Ceylon magpie is a brightly coloured member of the family Corvidae, found exclusively in Sri Lanka. This species is adapted to hunting in the dense canopy, where it is highly active and nimble. Its flight is rather weak, though, and is rarely used to cover great distances. In spite of the Sri Lanka blue magpie's ability to adapt to the presence of humans, it is classified as vulnerable to extinction due to the ...
fragmentation and destruction of its habitat of dense primary forest in the wet zone of southern Sri Lanka.
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Sri Lanka blue magpie
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
The golden palm civet is a palm civet endemic to Sri Lanka. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. Its distribution is severely fragmented, and the extent and quality of its habitat in Sri Lanka's hill regions are declining. The golden palm civet was described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1778.
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Golden palm civet
Sri Lanka hanging parrot
Sri Lanka hanging parrot
The Sri Lanka hanging parrot is a small parrot which is a resident endemic breeder in Sri Lanka.
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Sri Lanka hanging parrot
Sri Lankan krait
Sri Lankan krait
Bungarus ceylonicus, the Ceylon krait or Sri Lankan krait, is a species of venomous elapid snake which is endemic to the island Sri Lanka, locally known as මුදු කරවලා .
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Sri Lankan krait
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Moschiola meminna is a species of even-toed ungulate in the chevrotain family . Particularly in the old literature, M. meminna often refers to the spotted chevrotains as a whole. Today, the name is increasingly restricted to the Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain or white-spotted chevrotain, with the Indian spotted chevrotain M. indica and/or the yellow-striped chevrotain M. kathygre treated as distinct species.
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Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus, the Sri Lankan pit viper, Ceylon pit viper, Sri Lankan green pitviper or locally, pala polonga, is a venomous pit viper species endemic to Sri Lanka. No subspecies are currently recognized.
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Trimeresurus trigonocephalus
Ichthyophis glutinosus
Ichthyophis glutinosus
Ichthyophis glutinosus, the Ceylon caecilian or common yellow-banded caecilian, is a species of caecilian in the family Ichthyophiidae endemic to Sri Lanka. Its natural habitats are moist tropical and subtropical forests and pastures.
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Ichthyophis glutinosus
Sri Lanka hill myna
Sri Lanka hill myna
The Sri Lanka hill myna, Ceylon myna or Sri Lanka myna, is a myna, a member of the starling family. This bird is endemic to Sri Lanka.
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Sri Lanka hill myna
Sri Lanka green pigeon
Sri Lanka green pigeon
The Sri Lanka green pigeon or Ceylon green pigeon is a pigeon in the genus Treron. In Sri Lanka, this bird and several other green pigeon are known as bata goya in the Sinhala language. It is found in the forests of Sri Lanka. Many authorities split the species from the pompadour green pigeon complex.
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Sri Lanka green pigeon
Sri Lanka spurfowl
Sri Lanka spurfowl
The Sri Lanka spurfowl is a member of the pheasant family which is endemic to the dense rainforests of Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, this bird is known as haban kukula - හබන් කුකුලා in Sinhala.
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Sri Lanka spurfowl
Green-billed coucal
Green-billed coucal
The green-billed coucal is a member of the cuckoos. It is endemic to Sri Lanka's wet zone and listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as the small population declined due to forest destruction and fragmentation. It inhabits the tall rainforests of southwest Sri Lanka and nests in bushes. Its typical clutch is 2–3 eggs.
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Green-billed coucal
Serendib scops owl
Serendib scops owl
The Serendib scops owl is the most recently discovered bird of Sri Lanka. It was originally located by its unfamiliar poo-ooo call in the Kitulgala rainforest by prominent Sri Lankan ornithologist Deepal Warakagoda. Six years later, it was finally seen by him on 23 January 2001 in Sinharaja, and formally described as a species new to science in 2004. Apart from Sinharaja and Kitulgala, it has also been found at Runakanda Reserve in Morapitiya ...
and Eratna Gilimale. Known as පඩුවන් බස්සා in Sinhala. It is the first new bird to be discovered in Sri Lanka since 1868, when the Sri Lanka whistling thrush—then Ceylon whistling thrush— was discovered. It is also the 24th endemic bird species for Sri Lanka. The habitat of the Serendib scops owl is in the southern rain forests of Sri Lanka. There is an altitudinal range from 30 to 50 metres. This owl has no competition from other nocturnal birds, the territories are completely different. This species has a very small population, at the end of January 2006 only 80 of them were known to exist. The places that it is expected to be found are in five protected areas, like the Forest Reserve or the Proposed Reserve by Sri Lanka. They seem to be declining because of the loss of habitat and the degradation. The first two hours of darkness is when the owl hunts for its food. This rare species inhabits the rainforests in the southwestern part of Sri Lanka. Like most owls, it is strictly nocturnal and hunts insects close to the ground. It begins calling at dusk, its frequency rising again some two hours before dawn. Unlike the other two species of scops owl in Sri Lanka, Indian scops owl and oriental scops owl, it does not have ear tufts and its facial disc is only weakly defined. The general colour of this 16.5 cm long, short-tailed owl is reddish brown with paler underparts, spotted all over with fine black markings. The irides are tawny yellow and the feet are a pale fleshy colour. Tarsi are feathered for less than half their length. The claws and bill are a pale ivory colour.
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Serendib scops owl
Red-backed flameback
Red-backed flameback
The Red-backed flameback, Lesser Sri Lanka flameback, Sri Lanka red-backed woodpecker or Ceylon red-backed woodpecker is a species of bird in the family Picidae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka, only absent in the far-north. It is sometimes considered a subspecies of the Black-rumped flameback.
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Red-backed flameback
Black-capped bulbul
Black-capped bulbul
The black-capped bulbul, or black-headed yellow bulbul, is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is endemic to Sri Lanka.
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Black-capped bulbul
Crimson-backed flameback
Crimson-backed flameback
The crimson-backed flameback or greater Sri Lanka flameback is a species of bird in the woodpecker family Picidae that is endemic to Sri Lanka.
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Crimson-backed flameback
White-faced starling
White-faced starling
The white-faced starling,, is a member of the starling family of birds. It is an endemic resident breeder in Sri Lanka. It was for a long time erroneously known as S. senex; this was eventually identified as a junior synonym of the red-billed starling .
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White-faced starling
Sri Lanka whistling thrush
Sri Lanka whistling thrush
The Sri Lanka whistling thrush is a whistling thrush in the family Muscicapidae. It is a resident endemic bird in Sri Lanka.
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Sri Lanka whistling thrush
Dull-blue flycatcher
Dull-blue flycatcher
The dull-blue flycatcher is a small passerine bird in the flycatcher family, Muscicapidae. It was previously included in the genus Muscicapa.
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Dull-blue flycatcher
Sri Lanka swallow
Sri Lanka swallow
The Sri Lanka swallow is a resident breeder endemic to Sri Lanka. It is closely related to the red-rumped swallow, and was formerly considered a subspecies.
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Sri Lanka swallow
Spot-winged thrush
Spot-winged thrush
The spot-winged thrush,, is an Asian thrush, a group within the large thrush family Turdidae.
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Spot-winged thrush
Sri Lanka woodshrike
Sri Lanka woodshrike
The Sri Lanka woodshrike is a species of bird in the family Vangidae. It is found on Sri Lanka. It is sometimes considered a subspecies of the common woodshrike.
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Sri Lanka woodshrike
Sri Lanka bush warbler
Sri Lanka bush warbler
The Sri Lanka bush warbler, also known as Ceylon bush warbler or Palliser's warbler, is an Old World warbler which is an endemic resident breeder in Sri Lanka, where it is the only bush warbler.
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Sri Lanka bush warbler
Sri Lanka grey hornbill
Sri Lanka grey hornbill
The Sri Lanka grey hornbill is a bird in the hornbill family and a widespread and common endemic resident breeder in Sri Lanka. Hornbills are a family of tropical near-passerine birds found in the Old World.
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Sri Lanka grey hornbill
Orange-billed babbler
Orange-billed babbler
The orange-billed babbler also known as Ceylon rufous babbler or Sri Lankan rufous babbler is a member of the family Leiothrichidae.
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Orange-billed babbler
Layard's parakeet
Layard's parakeet
Layard's parakeet is a parrot which is a resident endemic breeder in Sri Lanka. The common name of this bird commemorates the British naturalist Edgar Leopold Layard; his first wife, Barbara Anne Calthrop, whom he married in 1845, is commemorated in the specific epithet.
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Layard's parakeet
Sri Lanka wood pigeon
Sri Lanka wood pigeon
The Sri Lanka wood pigeon is a pigeon which is an endemic resident breeding bird in the mountains of Sri Lanka.
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Sri Lanka wood pigeon
Red-faced malkoha
Red-faced malkoha
The red-faced malkoha is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes. This malkoha species is endemic to Sri Lanka
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Red-faced malkoha
Crimson-fronted barbet
Crimson-fronted barbet
The crimson-fronted barbet, also called Sri Lanka barbet, is an Asian barbet endemic to Sri Lanka where it inhabits tropical moist lowland forests up to 1,300 m elevation.
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Crimson-fronted barbet
Chestnut-backed owlet
Chestnut-backed owlet
The chestnut-backed owlet, is an owl which is endemic to Sri Lanka. This species is a part of the larger grouping of owls known as typical owls, Strigidae, which contains most of the smaller owl species. This species was formerly considered to be a subspecies of the jungle owlet.
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Chestnut-backed owlet
Yellow-eared bulbul
Yellow-eared bulbul
The yellow-eared bulbul is a species of songbird in the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is an endemic resident breeder in the highlands of Sri Lanka. The common name is also used as an alternate name for the yellow-throated bulbul.
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Yellow-eared bulbul
Sri Lanka white-eye
Sri Lanka white-eye
The Sri Lanka white-eye is a small passerine bird in the white-eye family. It is a resident breeder in forests, gardens and plantations which is endemic to Sri Lanka, mainly in the highlands.
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Sri Lanka white-eye
Sri Lanka drongo
Sri Lanka drongo
The Sri Lanka drongo or Ceylon crested drongo, is a species of bird in the family Dicruridae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka. It was previously considered a subspecies of the greater racket-tailed drongo. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland and montane forests.
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Sri Lanka drongo
Ashy-headed laughingthrush
Ashy-headed laughingthrush
The ashy-headed laughingthrush is a member of the family Leiothrichidae. The laughingthrushes are a large family of Old World passerine birds characterised by soft fluffy plumage. These are birds of tropical areas, with the greatest variety in southeast Asia.
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Ashy-headed laughingthrush
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