Eswatini is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north, west, south, and southeast. At no more than 200 kilometres north to south and 130 kilometres east to west, Eswatini is one of the smallest countries in Africa; despite this, its climate and topography are diverse, ranging from a cool and mountainous highveld to a hot and dry lowveld.
Eswatini has a spectrum of formal and informal conservation areas that protect the nation's rich biological diversity. These areas comprise about 5% of the country's land area. Eswatini has over 820 species of vertebrates, and over 2400 species of plants, with many endemic species. This diversity suggests Eswatini is globally important for biodiversity conservation.
Land degradation and conversion to other land uses are the major threats to biodiversity, including plantation agriculture, bush-clearing, the spread of alien and invasive plants, and unsustainable resource harvesting; major land fragmentation is evident.
There are six gazetted Protected Areas and over ten informal Protected Areas in the country. The formally gazetted areas include: Malolotja Nature Reserve, Mantenga Nature Reserve, Mlawula Nature Reserve, Mlilwane, and Mkhaya Game Reserves, and Hlane Royal National Park, in trust for the nation, managed by BGP.
In addition to these, there are many private and community nature reserves, as well as some with mixed governance structures. These include: Dombeya Game Reserve, Mbuluzi Game Reserve, Shewula Nature Reserve, Phophonyane Nature Reserve, Royal Jozini Game Reserve, IYSIS, Ngwempisi Wildnerness, Sibebe and others. There are other entities that practice secondary or tertiary conservation, as well as two Conservancies: the Mhlosinga Conservancy and the Lubombo Conservancy. Other conservation players include: the Natural History Society of Eswatini and the Eswatini Game Ranchers Association,
There are known to be 507 bird species in Eswatini, including 11 globally threatened species and four introduced species, and 107 mammal species native to Eswatini, including the critically endangered South-central black rhinoceros and seven other endangered or vulnerable species.
Eswatini is rich in bird life, including white-backed vultures, white-headed, lappet-faced and Cape vultures, raptors such as martial eagles, bateleurs, and long-crested eagles, and the southernmost nesting site of the marabou stork.