The Tropiduridae are a family of iguanid lizards. The family is sometimes considered a subfamily, Tropidurinae. The subfamily is native to South America, including the islands of Trinidad and the Galápagos. Commonly known as neotropical ground lizards, most are ground-dwelling animals, and the subfamily includes some lizards adapted to relatively cold climates, including those of the Andes mountains and Tierra del Fuego. Several species give birth to live young.
A 2021 study described a novel escutcheon-type generation gland ('α-gland') in tropidurines, found in at least 39 species. This gland is believed to be the main potential source of semiochemicals in this group indicating its importance in chemical signalling, an essential component of the communication system of lizards.