Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populated state in India. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and its tributary Yamuna, meet at the Triveni Sangam in Allahabad, a Hindu pilgrimage site. Other notable rivers are Gomti and Saryu. The forest cover in the state is 6.1% of the state's geographical area. The cultivable area is 82% of total geographical area and net area sown is 68.5% of cultivable area.
The state has an abundance of natural resources. In 2011 the recorded forest area in the state was 16,583 km2 which is about 6.9% of the state's geographical area. In spite of rapid deforestation and poaching of wildlife, a diverse flora and fauna continue to exist in the state. Species in the state with respect to India, Uttar Pradesh is a habitat for 4.2% of all Algae, 6.4% of Fungi, 6.0% of Lichens, 2.9% of Bryophytes, 3.3% of Pteridophytes, 8.7% of Gymnosperms, 8.1% of Angiosperms. Several species of trees, large and small mammals, reptiles, and insects are found in the belt of temperate upper mountainous forests. Medicinal plants are found in the wild and are also grown in plantations. The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands support cattle. Moist deciduous trees grow in the upper Gangetic plain, especially along its riverbanks. This plain supports a wide variety of plants and animals. The Ganges and its tributaries are the habitat of large and small reptiles, amphibians, fresh-water fish, and crabs. Scrubland trees such as the Babool and animals such as the Chinkara are found in the arid Vindhyas. Notable indigenous trees are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul, consider the tree to be sacred by Hindu and Jain ascetics as this is the tree under which Gautama Buddha is believed to have attained enlightenment.
Tropical dry deciduous forests are found in all parts of the plains. Since much sunlight reaches the ground, shrubs and grasses are also abundant. Large tracts of these forests have been cleared for cultivation. Tropical thorny forests, consisting of widely scattered thorny trees, mainly babool are mostly found in the southwestern parts of the state. These forests are confined to areas which have low annual rainfall, a mean annual temperature of 25–27 °C and low humidity.
Uttar Pradesh is known for its extensive avifauna. The most common birds which are found in the state are doves, peafowl, junglefowl, black partridges, house sparrows, songbirds, blue jays, parakeets, quails, bulbuls, comb ducks, kingfishers, woodpeckers, snipes, and parrots. Bird sanctuaries in the state include Bakhira Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary, Chandra Prabha Sanctuary, Hastinapur Sanctuary, Kaimoor Sanctuary, and Okhla Sanctuary.
Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras, kraits, and gharials. Among the wide variety of fishes, the most common ones are mahaseer and trout. Some animal species in Uttar Pradesh have gone extinct in recent years, while others, like the lion from the Gangetic Plain, the rhinoceros from the Terai region, Ganges river dolphin primarily found in the Ganges have become endangered. Many species are vulnerable to poaching despite regulation by the government.
Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana Monastery, SravastiA hybrid nasturtium showing nectar spur, found mainly in Hardoi districtView of the Terai regionThe threatened Gharial is a large fish-eating crocodilian found in the Ganges River
Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana Monastery, Sravasti
A hybrid nasturtium showing nectar spur, found mainly in Hardoi district
View of the Terai region
The threatened Gharial is a large fish-eating crocodilian found in the Ganges River