The Yellow mongoose is a small African mammal. Its name comes from the color of its coat, which can, in fact, vary among subspecies from yellow to gray. A territorial animal, it defines its boundaries by using different forms of scent-markings. When communicating with others it uses tail movements, but is vocal when playful, angry or scared.
This species occurs throughout southern Africa in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and South Africa. It prefers to live in habitats with open grassland, arid savanna and scrub areas where it can find a wide range of prey to eat.
Yellow mongooses are primarily diurnal and spend most of their day foraging, though sometimes they are active at night. They rest or sunbathe outside their dens before going off to feed and travel. Living in permanent burrows, they often share them with meerkats and ground squirrels, although they can make very complex burrows. Yellow mongooses are a social species and the colonies they live in are usually focused on a family group of a male and female with their youngest offspring, along with subadults, very old adults, and other individuals that have an association with the group. The home ranges of males often overlap and are bigger than those of the females. They are quiet animals, though they will scream during fights, growl when threatened, bark, and purr. The tail may be a means of communication.
Yellow mongooses are carnivorous, they mainly eat insects including, ants, termites, locusts and beetles. They also eat birds, frogs, lizards, eggs and small rodents, as well as fruits, nuts and seeds.
Yellow mongooses are polygynous, which means that one male mates with multiple females. The breeding season in the wild is usually from July until late September, so most births occur from October to November. Gestation varies from 42 to 57 days. Females can have as many as 5 offspring but 2-3 are common. Young are born inside a chamber underground in the burrow, and are weaned by about 10 weeks old. It is unknown whether males participate in feeding and caring for the young. These animals are fully grown at 10 months old and can breed from 12 months old.
The Yellow mongoose is not faced with any major threats, though the impact of road deaths might be worth considering. In South Africa in the wild, they are a host (or carrier) of a strain of rabies. As a result, many farmers believe that they are a danger to them and their animals, resulting in much hunting of Yellow mongooses. They are also hunted in farmland areas in Western Cape, South Africa, because they are seen as a pest, due to burrowing in crop areas.
This species is relatively widespread and common throughout its range. According to the Kruger Park resource, the total population size of the Yellow mongoose is estimated to be around 100,000 individuals. Currently this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today remain stable.
Due to the diet, the Yellow mongoose may control the populations of insects, snakes, lizards etc. They also serve as prey for the birds of prey, snakes and jackals.