The Сentral chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) is a subspecies of the chimpanzee closely related to the other great apes such as gorillas, orangutans, and humans. Central chimpanzees are considered highly intelligent apes. They are also highly social living in large groups and follow a male dominant hierarchy. The activity budgets of this chimpanzee subspecies changes depending on if they were in the wild or in sanctuaries. They have been observed using tools, this could be to open nuts or using twigs to gain access to ants and termites.
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
An omnivore is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and ani...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some anima...
A territory is a sociographical area that which an animal consistently defends against the conspecific competition (or, occasionally, against anima...
Altricial animals are those species whose newly hatched or born young are relatively immobile. They lack hair or down, are not able to obtain food ...
Browsing is a type of herbivory in which an herbivore (or, more narrowly defined, a folivore) feeds on leaves, soft shoots, or fruits of high-growi...
Zoochory animals are those that can disperse plant seeds in several ways. Seeds can be transported on the outside of vertebrate animals (mostly mam...
Polygynandry is a mating system in which both males and females have multiple mating partners during a breeding season.
A dominance hierarchy (formerly and colloquially called a pecking order) is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of animal social gr...
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
Central chimpanzees have been observed attacking western lowland gorilla troops and killing their infants. They are covered in coarse black hair but have a bare face, fingers, toes, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet. As they get older, white or grey patches may appear, particularly on the chin and lower region. The skin may range from pale to dark, though females develop swelling pink skin during the mating season.
Central chimpanzees occur in Central Africa, mainly in Gabon, Cameroon, and the Republic of the Congo, but also in the Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, the Cabinda exclave of Angola, southeast Nigeria, and (possibly) the coastal extension of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Their range extends north to the Sanaga River in Cameroon, east to the Ubangi River which defines the border between the two Congos, and south to the Congo River, which defines a large part of the same border. They live predominantly in tropical moist forests, swamp forests, and wet savanna woodlands, as well as the forest-savanna mosaics.
Chimpanzees are highly adaptable animals. They are at home both in trees and on the ground. In trees, they move by climbing vertically and by brachiation. On the ground, they move both quadrupedally and bipedally. Chimpanzees live in communities that usually consist of around 20 to more than 150 members but spend most of their time traveling in small, temporary groups consisting of only a few individuals. These groups may consist of any combination of ages and sexes. Both males and females sometimes travel alone. At the core of social structures are males, which patrol the territory, protect group members, and search for food. Males remain in their natal communities, while females generally emigrate during adolescence. Among males, there is generally a dominance hierarchy, and males are dominant over females. Chimpanzees build a sleeping nest in a tree in a different location each night, never using the same nest more than once. They sleep alone in separate nests except for infants or juveniles, which sleep with their mothers. Chimpanzees use facial expressions, postures, and sounds to communicate with each other. The most common call in adults is the "pant-hoot", which may signal social rank and bond along with keeping groups together. Grunting is made in situations like feeding and greeting. Submissive individuals make "pant-grunts" towards their superiors. Whimpering is made by young chimpanzees as a form of begging or when lost from the group. Chimpanzees also use distance calls to draw attention to danger, food sources, or other community members.
Chimpanzees are omnivores but prefer fruit above all other food items. They also eat leaves, leaf buds, seeds, blossoms, stems, piths, bark, honey, soil, insects, birds and their eggs, and small to medium-sized mammals, including even other primates.
Chimpanzees have a polygynandrous (promiscuous) mating system in which males and females mate with several mates in their community. A male and female can form a consortship and mate outside their community. In addition, females sometimes leave their community and mate with males from neighboring communities. Chimpanzees mate throughout the year. After the gestation period of 8 months, a single young is born. Care for the young is provided mostly by their mothers which provide their young with food, warmth, and protection, and teach them certain skills. In addition, a chimpanzee's future rank may be dependent on its mother's status. Newborn chimpanzees are helpless and for their first 30 days, infants cling to their mother's bellies. Infants are unable to support their own weight for their first 2 months and need their mothers' support. When they reach 5 to 6 months, infants ride on their mothers' backs. They remain in continual contact for the rest of their first year. When they reach 2 years of age, they are able to move and sit independently and start moving beyond the arms' reach of their mothers. By 4 to 6 years, chimpanzees are weaned and infancy ends. The juvenile period for chimpanzees lasts from 6 to 9 years. Juveniles remain close to their mothers but interact an increasing amount with other members of their community. Adolescent females move between groups and are supported by their mothers in agonistic encounters. Adolescent males spend time with adult males in social activities like hunting and boundary patrolling.
Major threats to Central chimpanzee populations include poaching for bushmeat, habitat destruction, and Ebola virus disease due to increasing human presence (agriculture, de-forestation, development) and political instability.
According to IUCN Red List, the total population size of the Central Chimpanzee is around 140,000 individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are decreasing.
Chimpanzees, as predators, may have a role in controlling the populations of their prey. They have a large impact on the Red colobus monkey, bush pigs, and baboons by predating them. Chimpanzees may also help with the dispersal of seeds of certain plants, through transportation, or by eating the fruit.