Endemic Animals of Puerto Rico








Common coquí
Common coquí
The common coquí or coquí is a species of frog endemic to Puerto Rico belonging to the family Eleutherodactylidae. The species is named for the loud call the males make at night. This sound serves two purposes. "CO" serves to repel other males and establish territory while the "KEE" serves to attract females. Since the auditory systems of males and females respond preferentially to different notes of the male call, this is an example of a sex d ...
ifference in a sensory system. The common coquí is a very important aspect of Puerto Rican culture, and it has become an unofficial territorial symbol of Puerto Rico.
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Common coquí
Puerto Rican amazon
Puerto Rican amazon
The Puerto Rican amazon, also known as the Puerto Rican parrot, cotorra puertorriqueña or iguaca, is the only extant parrot endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico, and belongs to the Neotropical genus Amazona. Measuring 28–30 cm, the bird is a predominantly green parrot with a red forehead and white rings around the eyes. Two subspecies have been described, although there are doubts regarding the distinctiveness of the form gracilipes from Cu ...
lebra Island, extinct since 1912. Its closest relatives are believed to be the Cuban amazon and the Hispaniolan amazon . The Puerto Rican amazon reaches sexual maturity at between three and four years of age. It reproduces once a year and is a cavity nester. Once the female lays eggs she will remain in the nest and continuously incubate them until hatching. The chicks are fed by both parents and will fledge 60 to 65 days after hatching. This parrot's diet is varied and consists of flowers, fruits, leaves, bark and nectar obtained from the forest canopy. The species is the only remaining native parrot in Puerto Rico and has been listed as critically endangered by the World Conservation Union since 1994. Once widespread and abundant, the population declined drastically in the 19th and early 20th centuries with the removal of most of its native habitat; the species completely vanished from Vieques and Mona Island, nearby to the main island of Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts commenced in 1968 to save the bird from extinction.
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Puerto Rican amazon
Puerto Rican spindalis
Puerto Rican spindalis
The Puerto Rican spindalis is a bird endemic to the island of Puerto Rico, where it is commonly known as reina mora. The species is widely distributed throughout the island and is an important part of the Puerto Rican ecosystem because of its help in seed dispersal and plant reproduction. The Puerto Rican spindalis is the unofficial national bird of Puerto Rico.
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Puerto Rican spindalis
Yellow-shouldered blackbird
Yellow-shouldered blackbird
The yellow-shouldered blackbird, also known as in Puerto Rican Spanish as la mariquita de Puerto Rico or capitán, is a diurnal blackbird endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico and belongs to the genus Agelaius of the family Icteridae. It has black plumage with a prominent yellow shoulder on its wing. Adult males and females are of similar appearance. The species is predominantly insectivorous.
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Yellow-shouldered blackbird
Puerto Rican boa
Puerto Rican boa
The Puerto Rican boa is a large species of boa endemic to Puerto Rico. It is a terrestrial snake with a dark brown coloration. It grows to 1.9 m in length. It feeds on small mammals such as rodents and bats, birds and sometimes anole lizards. Like all boas, it is viviparous and kills its prey using constriction.
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Puerto Rican boa
Mona ground iguana
Mona ground iguana
The Mona ground iguana is a rock iguana that is endemic to Mona Island, Puerto Rico, and is the largest native terrestrial lizard in Puerto Rico. It was previously considered a subspecies of the rhinoceros iguana .
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Mona ground iguana
Green mango
Green mango
The green mango is a large species of hummingbird endemic to the main island of Puerto Rico. It is usually found in the mountainous regions of the island, often in coffee and other kind of plantations. They usually feed on the nectar found in Heliconia flowers. Their feather coloration is mainly solid dark green with a dark blue and black tail, but solid purple-black birds are common. Females are less glossy, and they have very small white tips ...
at the tail ends.
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Green mango
Puerto Rican nightjar
Puerto Rican nightjar
The Puerto Rican nightjar or Puerto Rican Whip-poor-will is a bird in the nightjar family found in the coastal dry scrub forests in localized areas of southwestern Puerto Rico. It was described in 1916 from bones found in a cave in north central Puerto Rico and a single skin specimen from 1888, and was considered extinct until observed in the wild in 1961. The current population is estimated as 1,400-2,000 mature birds. The species is currently ...
classified as Endangered due to pressures from habitat loss.
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Puerto Rican nightjar
Puerto Rican emerald
Puerto Rican emerald
The Puerto Rican emerald, or zumbadorcito de Puerto Rico in Spanish, is an endemic hummingbird found only in the archipelago of Puerto Rico.
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Puerto Rican emerald
Puerto Rican parakeet
Puerto Rican parakeet
The Puerto Rican parakeet or Puerto Rican conure is an extinct species of parrot that was found on Mona Island and possibly in Puerto Rico.
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Puerto Rican parakeet
Puerto Rican tanager
Puerto Rican tanager
The Puerto Rican tanager is a small passerine bird endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico. It is the only member of the genus Nesospingus and has historically been placed in the tanager family, but recent studies indicate it as either belonging in its own family Nesospingidae or as being a member of Phaenicophilidae. Its closest relatives are likely the spindalises . The Puerto Rican tanager is known to locals as llorosa, which means 'cryer'.
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Puerto Rican tanager
Puerto Rican vireo
Puerto Rican vireo
The Puerto Rican vireo is a small bird endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico and one of the 31 species belonging to the genus Vireo of the family Vireonidae. Its local name is bien-te-veo, not to be confused with the unrelated great kiskadee - also known as bien-te-veo - which is found elsewhere.
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Puerto Rican vireo
Puerto Rican tody
Puerto Rican tody
The Puerto Rican tody is a bird native to the island of Puerto Rico. Despite its scientific name, the Puerto Rican tody is endemic to the island and is locally known as "San Pedrito" and "Medio peso" . The Puerto Rican tody makes up one of the five endemic Todus species of the Greater Antilles. Hispaniola has two endemic species, while Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico each have one. The Puerto Rican tody differs from the other Greater Antilles ...
todies in that it is the only species without pink or yellow-green colored feathers on its flanks.
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Puerto Rican tody
Elfin woods warbler
Elfin woods warbler
The elfin woods warbler is a species of bird endemic to Puerto Rico, where it is local and uncommon. Discovered in 1968 and described in 1972, it is the most recently described New World warbler . The species name, angelae, is a tribute to Angela Kepler, one of its discoverers. The species birds are insectivores, as they feed by gleaning small insects off the habitat leaves. Due to its small populations and restricted habitats, conservation ...
efforts were begun in 1982 to protect this species, but as of 2005, the warbler was still in need of protection. The species is not in immediate danger as the majority of its habitat is protected forest, but introduced species, habitat reduction, and natural disasters represent potential threats to the population.
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Elfin woods warbler
Puerto Rican owl
Puerto Rican owl
The Puerto Rican owl or múcaro, formerly known as the Puerto Rican screech owl, is a nocturnal endemic owl of the archipelago of Puerto Rico. It is the only species placed in the genus Gymnasio of the family Strigidae. The subspecies G. n. newtoni, which was endemic to the Virgin Islands, was locally referred to as the cuckoo bird.
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Puerto Rican owl
Puerto Rican woodpecker
Puerto Rican woodpecker
The Puerto Rican woodpecker is the only woodpecker endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico and is one of the five species of the genus Melanerpes that occur in the Antilles. Furthermore, it is the only resident species of the family Picidae in Puerto Rico. The species is common on the main island of Puerto Rico and rare on the island of Vieques.
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Puerto Rican woodpecker
Puerto Rican bullfinch
Puerto Rican bullfinch
The Puerto Rican bullfinch or comeñame in Spanish, is a small bullfinch tanager endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico. These were previously considered Emberizidae. The Puerto Rican bullfinch has black feathers with orange areas above the eyes, around its throat, and underneath the tail's base. The species measures from 17 to 19 cm and weighs approximately 32 grams.
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Puerto Rican bullfinch
Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk
Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk
The Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk,, falcón de sierra or gavilán pecho rufo in Spanish, is an endemic subspecies of the North American sharp-shinned hawk, occurring only in Puerto Rico. Discovered in 1912 and described as a distinct sub-species, it has been placed on the United States Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered species because of its rapidly dwindling population in Puerto Rico. It can be found in the Toro Negro State Forest.
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Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk
Puerto Rican oriole
Puerto Rican oriole
The Puerto Rican oriole is a species of bird in the family Icteridae, and genus Icterus or New World blackbirds. This species is a part of a subgroup of orioles that includes the North American orchard oriole, Icterus spurius, and the hooded oriole, Icterus cucullatus. The Puerto Rican oriole was previously grouped with Cuban oriole, Hispaniolan oriole, and Bahama oriole as a single species, . In 2010, all four species became recognized as full ...
species by the American Ornithologists' Union.
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Puerto Rican oriole
Puerto Rican lizard cuckoo
Puerto Rican lizard cuckoo
The Puerto Rican lizard cuckoo is a cuckoo endemic to the island of Puerto Rico, and is one of 4 species of lizard-cuckoos which occur only on Caribbean islands. These were formerly placed in the genus Saurothera of the family Cuculidae, but are now lumped with Coccyzus . The binomial name of the Puerto Rican lizard cuckoo species commemorates French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot. The Puerto Rican lizard cuckoo occurs in forests and ...
coffee plantations throughout the island of Puerto Rico. The species can be observed slowly foraging the forest understory for lizards, its main dietary component . Large spiders and insects are consumed to supplement its diet. Cuckoos are slender birds with long tails and long, thin, slightly curved bills. They move very slowly foraging for prey through the forest. Cuckoos do not swoop or circle in flight but generally fly in a direct line.
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Puerto Rican lizard cuckoo
Adelaide's warbler
Adelaide's warbler
Adelaide's warbler is a bird endemic to the archipelago of Puerto Rico belonging to the genus Setophaga of the family Parulidae. The species is named after Adelaide Swift, daughter of Robert Swift, the person who captured the first specimen.
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Adelaide's warbler
Puerto Rican barn owl
Puerto Rican barn owl
The Puerto Rican barn owl is an extinct species of barn owl that inhabited the island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. It is sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the ashy-faced owl .
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Puerto Rican barn owl
Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk
Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk
The Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk is an endangered subspecies of the broad-winged hawk . It is a small hawk that occurs in Puerto Rico, inhabiting the Toro Negro State Forest. Its Spanish common name is guaragüao de bosque.
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Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk
Golden coquí
Golden coquí
The golden coquí is a rare species of frog endemic to Puerto Rico.
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Golden coquí
Locust coqui
Locust coqui
The locust coqui is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae endemic to Puerto Rico. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. E. locustus has suffered a population decline of more than 80% due to introduced predators and amphibian chytrid disease. Scientists believe amphibian chytrid disease may be exacerbated by climate change - warmer temperatures in ...
dry, moist habitats, causing stress that may lead to greater susceptibility to the disease.
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Locust coqui
Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi
Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi
Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi, the Puerto Rican wetland frog or, is an endangered species of coqui, a frog species, endemic to Puerto Rico. It was discovered in 2005 by Neftalí Rios, and was named after Puerto Rican herpetologist Juan A. Rivero, in honor of his contributions to Puerto Rican herpetology.
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Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi
Dwarf coqui
Dwarf coqui
The dwarf coqui or elfin coqui is a species of frog endemic to Puerto Rico. It is placed in the subgenus Eleutherodactylus.
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Dwarf coqui
Cricket coqui
Cricket coqui
The cricket coqui, green coqui, or coqui grillo is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae endemic to Puerto Rico. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.
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Cricket coqui
Hedrick's coqui
Hedrick's coqui
Hedrick's coqui, the treehole coqui, or coqui de Hedrick is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae endemic to Puerto Rico. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.
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Hedrick's coqui
Anolis cuvieri
Anolis cuvieri
Anolis cuvieri is a species of lizard in the family Dactyloidae. The species is endemic to Puerto Rico, and is common in the Toro Negro State Forest.
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Anolis cuvieri
Monito gecko
Monito gecko
The Monito gecko is a lizard, a species of gecko endemic to the island of Monito, in the archipelago of Puerto Rico.
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Monito gecko
Navassa curly-tailed lizard
Navassa curly-tailed lizard
The Navassa curly-tailed lizard or Navassa curlytail lizard is an extinct lizard species from the family of curly-tailed lizard . It is known only from the one female specimen from which it was described in 1868. A second specimen which was collected by Rollo Beck in 1917 was identified as a Tiburon curly-tailed lizard by herpetologist Richard Thomas in 1966.
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Navassa curly-tailed lizard
Amphisbaena caeca
Amphisbaena caeca
Amphisbaena caeca, commonly known as the Puerto Rican worm lizard or blind worm lizard, is a species of worm lizard endemic to Puerto Rico. These animals are vermicular reptiles that live under logs, rocks, and dirt. Other species of Amphisbaenids in the Caribbean include Amphisbaena bakeri, Amphisbaena fenestrata, Amphisbaena schmidti, Amphisbaena xera, and Cadea blanoides. Amphisbaenids are legless, worm-like reptiles with elongated bodies ...
nearly uniform in diameter. They are covered with ring-like scales similar in appearance to earthworms. They are underground animals, hence the eyes have degenerated to tiny indistinct spots under the rings.
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Amphisbaena caeca
Cochran's croaking gecko
Cochran's croaking gecko
Cochran's croaking gecko, also commonly known as Cochran's Caribbean gecko and the Navassa gecko, is a species of lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The species was described in 1931 by Chapman Grant and named after notable American herpetologist and artist Doris Mable Cochran. The species received one of its common names from the loud croaking call of the male during the mating period.
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Cochran's croaking gecko
Anolis poncensis
Anolis poncensis
Anolis poncensis is a species of lizard of the family of Dactyloidae. The species is endemic to Puerto Rico. It was first identified in Ponce, in the hills three miles east of the city. The Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources considers it a "vulnerable species".
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Anolis poncensis
Sphaerodactylus levinsi
Sphaerodactylus levinsi
Sphaerodactylus levinsi, also known commonly as the Desecheo gecko or the Isla Desecheo least gecko, is a species of lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae . The species is endemic to Desecheo Island in Puerto Rico.
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Sphaerodactylus levinsi
Sphaerodactylus roosevelti
Sphaerodactylus roosevelti
Sphaerodactylus roosevelti, also known commonly as Roosevelt's beige sphaero or Roosevelt's least gecko, is a small species of lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The species is endemic to Puerto Rico.
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Sphaerodactylus roosevelti
Sphaerodactylus nicholsi
Sphaerodactylus nicholsi
Sphaerodactylus nicholsi, also known commonly as Nichols least gecko, Nichol's dwarf sphaero or the Puerto Rican crescent sphaero, is a species of lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae . The species is endemic to Puerto Rico.
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Sphaerodactylus nicholsi
Sphaerodactylus gaigeae
Sphaerodactylus gaigeae
Sphaerodactylus gaigeae, also known commonly as the chevronated sphaero or Gaige's least gecko, is a species of lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae . The species is endemic to Puerto Rico.
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Sphaerodactylus gaigeae
Dwarf anole
Dwarf anole
Anolis occultus, the dwarf anole or Puerto Rican twig anole, is a species of Anolis lizards that is endemic to Puerto Rico. It is also called the limestone anole. Its habitat includes places like the Toro Negro State Forest in central Puerto Rico.
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Dwarf anole
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