Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country located mainly in Central Asia, and partly in Eastern Europe. It borders Russia in the north and west, China in the east, and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south. Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country. It has a population of 19 million.
There are ten nature reserves and ten national parks in Kazakhstan that provide safe haven for many rare and endangered plants and animals. Common plants are Astragalus, Gagea, Allium, Carex and Oxytropis; endangered plant species include native wild apple, wild grape and several wild tulip species and rare onion species Allium karataviense, also Iris willmottiana and Tulipa kaufmanniana. Kazakhstan had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.23/10, ranking it 26th globally out of 172 countries.
Common mammals include the wolf, red fox, corsac fox, moose, argali, Eurasian lynx, Pallas's cat, and snow leopards, several of which are protected.Kazakhstan's Red Book of Protected Species lists 125 vertebrates including many birds and mammals, and 404 plants including fungi, algae and lichens.