Niue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres northeast of New Zealand. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres and its population was about 1,600 in 2016. Niue is located in a triangle between Tonga, Samoa, and the Cook Islands. It is 604 kilometers northeast of Tonga. Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain of the island has two noticeable levels. The higher level is made up of a limestone cliff running along the coast, with a plateau in the centre of the island reaching approximately 60 metres above sea level. The lower level is a coastal terrace approximately 0.5 km wide and about 25–27 metres high, which slopes down and meets the sea in small cliffs. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast.
Niue is part of the Tongan tropical moist forests terrestrial ecoregion. The island is home to approximately 60 native or pre-European plants, and approximately 160 naturalised flowering plant species. Compared to other Polynesian islands, Niue has sparse documentation for what plants were traditionally found on the island,
The Huvalu Forest Conservation Area is a 5,400 ha site on the eastern side of the island. It was established in 1992 and protects the largest area of primary forest in Niue. It has been designated an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because it supports populations of crimson-crowned fruit doves, blue-crowned lorikeets, Polynesian trillers and Polynesian starlings.