Red-Crested Cardinal

Red-Crested Cardinal

Brazilian cardinal

Paroaria coronata
Population size
Life Span
15 years
g oz 
cm inch 

The Red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata) is a songbird native to Brazil. Despite the similar name, it is not a close relative of the true cardinal family of Cardinalidae. It is sometimes known as the Brazilian cardinal.


The Red-crested cardinal is a medium-sized species showing a red head, with a red bib and a short red crest that the bird raises when excited. The belly, breast, and undertail are white, with a gray back, wings, and tail. Wing coverts are gray, but the primaries, secondaries, and rectrices show a darker gray. Juveniles are similar to the adults, but they show a dull brownish orange head and bib



These birds occur throughout the middle part of South America. This species does not migrate but is found year-round from central Bolivia south to Paraguay and in northeastern and central Argentina, throughout Uruguay and in the very south of Brazil. They have been introduced to Puerto Rico and Hawaii. In the wild, they inhabit a semi-open environment of scattered shrubbery and trees, especially near water.

Climate zones

Habits and Lifestyle

These colorful birds are diurnal and often are seen in small groups or pairs, and outside the breeding season will form larger flocks. They typically forage low in shrubbery or on the ground, and in urban environments may become quite tame, approaching humans for food. Males can become aggressive during the mating season, vigorously chasing intruders. Both male and female use their crests for showing emotion. In flight, their path is undulating. This species has a melodious song which features a range of whistles and musical chirps of varied pitch. A single song only lasts 1-3 seconds, but a song may be repeated over and over.

Seasonal behavior
Bird's call

Diet and Nutrition

Red-crested cardinals are omnivores, they mainly eat plant seeds, berries, fruits, and insects.

Mating Habits

12-13 days
2-3 weeks
2-5 eggs

Red-crested cardinals are monogamous and pairs mate for life. During the breeding season, birds remain exclusively in pairs. Mates maintain continuous contact by means of vocalizations and duets. Courtship displays involve strutting, fanning their tails and clicking their bills. The breeding season runs from October and November each year. The male constructs a cup-shaped nest of grass and twigs, and lines the cup with finer material such as rootlets, plant fibers and fur. The nest is located in the fork of a tree, typically 6-20 feet from the ground. Each year a pair raises 1-2 broods. 2-5 eggs are laid each breeding season and they are incubated for 12-13 days. The juveniles leave the nest 2-3 weeks after they hatch. Once they leave the nest, juveniles may stay in the family group for as long as a year until they find a mate.


Population threats

These birds are not regarded as threatened or endangered, but can be susceptible to loss of habitat. As these birds are popular pets, bird poaching is likely to be a much bigger threat, but this has not had a significant impact yet on overall population numbers.

Population number

According to IUCN Red List, the Red-crested cardinal is common throughout its large range but no overall population estimate is available. According to the IUCN, the total population size of the species in Japan is 100-10,000 introduced breeding pairs that have been introduced. Currently, Red-crested cardinals are classified as Least Concern (LC) and their numbers today remain stable.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • These birds can easily be confused with the Yellow-billed cardinal or the Red-cowled cardinal, although neither of these species has the distinctive red crest, and the former clearly has a yellow bill.
  • A Red-crested cardinal called Pedro, a supporting character, appears in the films Rio and Rio 2.
  • Although the male builds the nest, his mate gives the final approval.
  • If a male loses sight of his mate, he makes a guttural call.
  • Red-crested cardinal adults have a red crest and a white bill, while juveniles have a crest that is brown, and a black bill.


1. Red-Crested Cardinal Wikipedia article -
2. Red-Crested Cardinal on The IUCN Red List site -
3. Xeno-canto bird call -

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