The Mountain reedbuck is a small and shy antelope found in mountainous areas of sub-Saharan Africa. They have a grey coat with a white underbelly and reddish-brown head and shoulders. Male have ridged horns which curve forwards. Both sexes have a dark scent patch beneath the ears.
Mountain reedbuck occur in three separate geographic areas, each containing a separate subspecies. Southern mountain reedbuck inhabit an area from the eastern Cape Province (South Africa) to southeastern Botswana. Chanler's mountain reedbuck occur in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, and Ethiopia. Adamawa mountain reedbuck have only been found in Cameroon. These animals occupy ridges and hillsides in the rocky country and high-altitude grasslands, often with some tree or bush cover.
Mountain reedbuck are social animals. They usually feed in the early evening and morning hours, normally in small groups of six or fewer individuals. During the heat of the day, they rest in the shade. A typical group is made up of one adult male and several adult females and juveniles. Adolescent males are forced out of their herds and form small bachelor herd. Dominant males mark their territory using displays, scents, and vocal signals and usually remain there for the whole year. When threatened Mountain reedbuck use a shrill whistle to warn others about possible danger.
Mountain reedbuck are polygynous which means that one male mates with more than one female during the breeding season. Breeding takes place throughout the year. Females give birth to a single calf after a gestation period of 8 months. Newborn calves stay hidden in dense vegetation for one month and mothers visit them only for nursing. Females reach reproductive maturity at around 9-12 months of age but become fully mature at 18-24 months of age. Males are ready to breed when they are 27 months old.
Main threats to these animals include hunting, competition with livestock for grazing, and human encroachment on their habitat due to the expansion of human settlement.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of Mountain reedbuck is over 36,000 individuals. This includes 33,000 Southern mountain reedbuck, 2,900 Chanler's mountain reedbuck, and 450 Western mountain reedbuck. Currently, this species is classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are decreasing.
Due to their grazing habits, Mountain reedbuck may influence the growth of vegetation in their habitat. They are also prey for local predators such as lions, leopards, wild dogs, jackals, and caracal.