Guanian saki, Guianan saki, Golden-faced saki
The white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia ), called the Guianan saki and the golden-faced saki, is a species of the New World saki monkey. They can be found in Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. This species lives in the understory and lower canopy of the forest, feeding mostly on fruits, nuts, seeds, and insects. Although they are arboreal creatures and are specialists of swinging from tree to tree (brachiation), they are also terrestrial when foraging. White-faced sakis typically live around 14 years in their natural habitat and have been recorded to live up to 36 years in captivity. Sakis are active in the day and sleep highly elevated (15-20m) in trees with many leaves to shelter them from weather and flying predators.Show More
A formerly recognized subspecies of this monkey, P. p. chrysocephala, was elevated to full species status as P. chrysocephala in 2014.Show Less
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example, foliage, for the main component of its die...
In zoology, a folivore is a herbivore that specializes in eating leaves. Mature leaves contain a high proportion of hard-to-digest cellulose, less ...
A frugivore is an animal that thrives mostly on raw fruits or succulent fruit-like produce of plants such as roots, shoots, nuts, and seeds. Approx...
Seed predation, often referred to as granivory, is a type of plant-animal interaction in which granivores (seed predators) feed on the seeds of pla...
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some anima...
Zoochory animals are those that can disperse plant seeds in several ways. Seeds can be transported on the outside of vertebrate animals (mostly mam...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
A territory is a sociographical area that which an animal consistently defends against the conspecific competition (or, occasionally, against anima...
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which both the male and the female has only one partner. This pair may cohabitate in an area or territory for...
Polygyny is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females but each female only mates with a single male.
Polygyny is a mating system in which one female lives and mates with multiple males but each male only mates with a single female.
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
White-Faced Sakis belong to the group of New World monkeys. Their small bodies contrast with long and heavily furred tails. Otherwise called the 'Guianan Sakis', these primates have powerful bodies and strong muscles on their legs, making them excellent jumpers. These animals display sexual dimorphism: males are distinguished by black overall coloration and buff-furred faces, whereas females have considerably lighter coats with bright patches, stretching from each eye to the chin. As opposed to Howler monkeys, these animals don't have prehensile tails and cannot grip objects with their tails.
The natural range of this species includes parts of Brazil, some remote areas of the neighboring Venezuela as well as the major parts of French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Within this territory, White-faced sakis are distributed throughout upland and lowland rainforests, occurring along the Cuyuni river basin, between the Caroni and the Orinoco Rivers. In both wet and dry habitats, these animals require sufficient amount of fruit-bearing trees and watering holes.
White-faced sakis gather into very small units of only 2 - 4 individuals. Group members take daily trips of 1 - 2 kilometers. They are most active in the early morning and early afternoon. As much as 9 hours of their active time are spent travelling. Mutual grooming is very important activity for these primates, performed by males and females and particularly, between mothers and infants. Experienced individuals teach young ones skills of infant care. Populations in captivity exhibit communal care with all members of the group helping rear offspring of each other. When moving, they use all of their four limbs. These monkeys actively use vocalizations in the daily life. The most common calls are chirps and high-pitched whistles. Meanwhile, loud calls act as territorial display. When facing a threat, these animals give out growling noises, puff themselves up to look bigger than they are as well as shake branches of trees at full strength.
Captive individuals of this species (such as those in zoos) generally exhibit monogamous mating system with very rare exceptions. Meanwhile, those in the wild tend to be either polygynous (where a single male mates with numerous females) or polyandrous (where a single female mates with numerous males), especially groups of more than 2 - 3 individuals. The reproductive system is also determined by the proportions of males and females in a given group. Reproduction occurs during the spring months. A single infant is born after 146 - 170 days of gestation. The baby grows up very quickly. Older siblings of the last 1 - 2 years usually contribute to rearing the newborn monkey. It's independent at 6 months old, although remains with its natal group before leaving at 1 year old. White-faced sakis are able to produce offspring of their own at 4 years old.
White-faced sakis are primarily threatened by loss of their natural habitat as a result of deforestation. These monkeys attract hunters for their meat as well as their highly-valued tails. In addition, some individuals of this species are captured and sold as pets.
According to IUCN, the White-faced saki is relatively common and widespread throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List.
Due to their diet, White-faced sakis act as important seed dispersers of the plants they consume, thus benefiting the local ecosystem.