The smallest vole in Britain, this animal is an excellent swimmer that is able to cross wide water streams. Moreover, this agile creature is a fast runner and an accomplished climber. The Bank vole is a mouse-like animal with a thick body. The coat is red-brown, the ears are prominent and the tail is long.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal",...
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example, foliage, for the main component of its die...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Altricial animals are those species whose newly hatched or born young are relatively immobile. They lack hair or down, are not able to obtain food ...
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct ...
A fossorial animal is one adapted to digging which lives primarily but not solely, underground. Some examples are badgers, naked mole-rats, clams, ...
A territory is a sociographical area that which an animal consistently defends against the conspecific competition (or, occasionally, against anima...
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Polygyny is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females but each female only mates with a single male.
Polygynandry is a mating system in which both males and females have multiple mating partners during a breeding season.
A dominance hierarchy (formerly and colloquially called a pecking order) is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of animal social gr...
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
The animal has a Palearctic distribution. The Bank vole is endemic to Great Britain but is also found throughout Europe (except for Iceland, northern Scandinavia (except for Finland) as well as the Iberian Peninsula and most of Italy), Asia Minor, and certain parts of Western Siberia. In the 1950s, this species was introduced into southwestern Ireland. Currently, the Bank voles dominate in the area and can even displace the native wood mouse in the future. The Skomer vole, a subspecies of the Bank vole, inhabits Skomer Island, located off the Pembrokeshire coast of Wales. The preferred habitats of these animals are deciduous and mixed woodlands with scrub, low plants, and leaf litter. They can also be found in hedgerows, field verges, among bracken and brambles, river banks, swamps, and parks. In mountainous regions and the northern part of their range Bank voles occur in coniferous woodland.
During the summer months, Bank voles are generally nocturnal. During the rest of the year, they may be active at any time of the day. Meanwhile, these animals are active year-round, since they don't undergo winter hibernation. The Bank voles are social animals. Females of this species dominate over males, which is particularly notable during the breeding season. After reaching maturity, young females usually continue living in the area, whereas males have to leave. However, territories of males are slightly larger than these of females - 0.8ha and 0.7ha respectively. These animals create worn routes through the undergrowth as well as dig systems of shallow tunnels right under the surface, which serve them as shelters. As a result, they make a network of worn routes throughout a territory of 40 meters.
Bank voles are generally herbivorous animals. They consume fruit, soft seeds, leaves, fungi, roots, grass, buds, and moss, supplementing this diet with snails, worms, insects, and other invertebrates. They can also feed upon the odd bird egg on occasion.
Bank voles exhibit polygynous (one male mates with multiple females) and, possibly, polygynandrous (promiscuous) (both males and females have multiple mates) mating systems. As a general rule, dominant males are more successful in finding mates. They usually run away from subordinate males in order to mate. The bank voles breed from April to October. Females yield 4-5 litters of 3-4 young per year. However, during favorable conditions, they may produce offspring year-round. The gestation period lasts for 21 days, sometimes - 17 days, when conditions are suitable. While suckling one litter, females may conceive another one, although the gestation period will likely last for up to 24 days. The mother is extremely careful with her young, making sure that all pups are in the nest. If any of them leaves, she will find the baby and carry it back to the nest. Weaning occurs at 20-25 days old, whereas reproductive maturity is reached at 4.5 weeks old. Meanwhile, pups that were born by the end of the breeding season begin mating only during the next season.
Although classified as Least Concern, this species currently suffer from the fragmentation of its woodland habitat, overgrazing by deer, and removal of hedgerows. The Bank voles, living nearby roads, are threatened by lead exposure. On the other hand, those in agricultural lands are endangered by pesticide drift as well as exposure to molluscicides and rodenticides.
The number of the Bank vole total population is unknown today, although this species is very common across its range. However, according to Wikipedia, the number of subspecies, the population of Skomer voles, found on the island of Skomer, may be around 20,000 individuals on the island in late summer. Overall, the Bank voles’ numbers are stable today, and this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List.
Due to their herbivorous diet, the Bank voles play a key role in recycling and redistributing nutrients throughout the ecosystem of their habitat. In some parts of their range, these animals are so abundant that are the primary prey species for the local small avian and mammalian predators and snakes.