The banteng (Bos javanicus) is a species of cattle found in Southeast Asia. Banteng occur in a variety of habitats throughout their range and can survive without water for long periods during droughts. The wild banteng is classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, and populations have decreased by more than 50% in the past few decades. They are legally protected in all countries in their range and are largely restricted to protected areas (possibly barring Cambodia). The banteng is the second endangered species to be successfully cloned, and the first clone to survive beyond infancy.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal",...
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example, foliage, for the main component of its die...
In zoology, a graminivore (not to be confused with a granivore) is an herbivorous animal that feeds primarily on grass. Graminivory is a form of g...
In zoology, a folivore is a herbivore that specializes in eating leaves. Mature leaves contain a high proportion of hard-to-digest cellulose, less ...
A frugivore is an animal that thrives mostly on raw fruits or succulent fruit-like produce of plants such as roots, shoots, nuts, and seeds. Approx...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Precocial species are normall...
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture...
Browsing is a type of herbivory in which an herbivore (or, more narrowly defined, a folivore) feeds on leaves, soft shoots, or fruits of high-growi...
Congregatory animals tend to gather in large numbers in specific areas as breeding colonies, for feeding, or for resting.
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Polygyny is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females but each female only mates with a single male.
A herd is a social grouping of certain animals of the same species, either wild or domestic. The form of collective animal behavior associated with...
A dominance hierarchy (formerly and colloquially called a pecking order) is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of animal social gr...
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
Wild animals are those that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. They can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, forests,...
Wild banteng are typically larger and heavier than their domesticated counterparts but are otherwise similar in appearance. The banteng shows extensive sexual dimorphism; adult males are generally dark brown to black, larger, and more sturdily built than adult females, that are thinner and usually pale brown or chestnut red. Females and juveniles additionally have a dark line running along their backs. Some males may retain their brown color, sometimes with white spots similar to those seen in deer. The coat of young bulls is reddish brown, and progressively attains the adult coloration starting from the front to the rear parts. Aged males may turn grey. The underparts are white to light brown. The face is lighter relative to the rest of the body, whitish or tawny grey at the forehead and around the eyes but darker near the black snout. There is a big white patch on the rump, poorly developed in the Indochinese banteng; the patch may serve as a guide for herds to stay together in the dark. The legs are white below the knees. The back is particularly elevated in bulls due to the unusual lengths of the thoracic vertebrae, giving the impression of a hump. Horns are typically 60 to 75 cm (24 to 30 in) long, and separated by thick skin at the base. Males have long, slender horns with sharp tips and a circular cross-section, and are smooth except for the wrinkled base. The horns of females are short and tightly curved, pointing inward at the tips, while those of males arc upwards and slightly forward. The tail, measuring 65 to 70 cm (26 to 28 in), ends in a black tuft.
Banteng are found in Southeast Asia. They occur in such countries as Indonesia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, and Viet Nam. They inhabit open dry deciduous forests, tropical moist forests, and seasonal freshwater swamp forests. They also can be found on open grassland, mature timber plantations, and abandoned cultivated land.
Banteng are usually active both night and day, but in places where humans are common, they mostly tend to be more active during the night. They are social creatures and gather in herds of 2 to 30 members. Each herd contains only one adult bull. In order to strengthen the bonds with the other individuals in the herd banteng often lick each other. If threatened these animals will thump the ground with their front hooves and if they are disturbed banteng usually snort.
Banteng have a polygynous mating system. Each herd has only one male who has access to all the females within this herd. The breeding season occurs from May to June. Females give birth to one calf after a gestation period of 9.5 months. Calves are born fully developed and can stand and walk shortly after birth. Mothers protect and nurse their young for 6-9 months after their birth. Both males and females reach reproductive maturity when they are 2-3 years old.
The main threats to the banteng include habitat loss, hunting for meat, horns, and trophy heads, hybridization with domesticated cattle, and infections with cattle diseases.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of the banteng is around 8,000 individuals. Around 4,600 individuals occur in eastern Cambodia. Currently, bantengs are classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List and their numbers today are decreasing.
Due to their grazing and browsing habits, banteng hugely impact the ecosystems in which they live.
Banteng have been domesticated in several places in Southeast Asia. There are around 1.5 million domestic banteng, which are called Bali cattle. They are used as working animals and for their meat. Bantengs have also been introduced to Northern Australia, where they have established stable feral populations. They all currently live within the Garig Gunak Barlu National Park. As of 2007, the initial population had grown from only 20 in 1849 to 8,000-10,000 individuals and is used exclusively for sports hunting and by Aboriginal subsistence hunters.