Marsupial Mole

Marsupial Mole

Blind sand burrower, Itjaritjari (Southern marsupial mole), kakarratul (Northern marsupial mole), Northern marsupial mole, Kakarratul

Genus Notoryctes
Population size
Life Span
1.5 years
g oz 
cm inch 

The northern marsupial mole or kakarratul (Notoryctes caurinus ) is a marsupial in the family Notoryctidae, an endemic animal of arid regions of Central Australia. It lives in the loose sand of dunes and river plains in the desert, spending nearly its entire life beneath ground. The facial features are reduced or absent, their small and strong body, weighing little more the 30 grams (1 ounce), is extremely specialised to moving through sand in search of prey. The species is elusive and it is one of the most poorly understood mammals of Australia.


These animals should not be confused with moles of the family Talpidae. Marsupial moles form a separate family, consisting of two living species: the northern and the southern marsupial moles. Moreover, these animals form a separate, very ancient marsupial order, having branched off from their ancestries about 64 million years ago. Small population, remote range as well as unusual habits have made these endangered animals two of the most infrequent and rarely found species in Australia. About two decades ago, they were nominated by Humane Society International for protection under federal law. The typical lifespans of both marsupial moles are uncertain due to lack of data. However, Southern marsupials are thought to live 1.5 years in the wild.



Both species inhabit deserts of Western Australia. Northern marsupial moles occur only in Great Sandy, Little Sandy and Gibson Deserts in north-central Western Australia, where these animals usually occupy dune fields, sand plains, interdunal flats and similar habitats. Their southern counterparts live in central regions of Australia, including the Northern Territory, Western Australia and South Australia. They typically inhabit river flats and temperate deserts, especially favoring sandy dunes with enough vegetation.

Marsupial Mole habitat map
Marsupial Mole habitat map
Marsupial Mole
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Habits and Lifestyle

Currently, there is insufficient information on the social habits and behavior of marsupial moles. However, they are likely to be solitary. They do not have any large or permanent burrows, where two or more animals could reside and socialize. Meanwhile, when above the ground, they do not appear to display any social behavior and interact with conspecifics. According to Aboriginal sources, these animals typically come to the surface during cooler days and after rain, though they are known do so at any time. When moving above ground, they are very sluggish and clumsy, usually walking with shuffling gait and being an easy target for local predators. They burrow temporary tunnels. During the digging process, the sand gives way and backfills behind the animal, so that the entrance of the tunnel looks from the outside like a small, oval-shaped site of loose sand. During the active hours of the day, these moles usually remain in their burrows, 20-100 cm below the surface.

Seasonal behavior

Diet and Nutrition

Marsupial moles are mainly carnivores (insectivores). The diet of southern marsupial moles mainly consists of insects, supplemented with termites, ants, ant eggs, seeds as well as tiny reptiles. Northern marsupial moles typically consume small lizards and salamanders, seeds, eggs, beetles and centipedes.

Mating Habits

1-2 pups

There is little data on the reproductive behavior and habits of these animals. Northern marsupial moles mate in November. The mating season of their southern counterparts is unknown, although are likely to breed during the same period. Aboriginal people say that they know nothing about the reproduction of these animals and they have never seen the offspring of marsupial moles. Although there is no information on gestation, weaning and age of maturity, females are thought to yield 1 - 2 babies at a time, which are born undeveloped. At birth, the young climb into the pouch of their mother, where they feed upon maternal milk.


Population threats

There's insufficient information on threats to populations of marsupial moles. The animals used to be hunted by Aboriginal people of the area. Nowadays, they are thought to suffer from predation by feral cats and foxes. The letters are known to catch marsupial moles on or near the surface. Marsupial moles are potentially threatened by changes in climate and fire regimes. They also face change in their natural habitat due to trampling of cattle and camels.

Population number

According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of the Northern marsupial mole is estimated to be between 10,000 and 50,000 mature individuals. However, the overall number of the Southern marsupial mole is between 10,000 and 100,000 mature individuals. Currently, both Marsupial mole species are classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List with stable population trend.

Ecological niche

On one hand, these animals play significant ecological role in the local ecosystem due to burrowing and thus aerating the soil and increasing water penetration. On the other hand, feeding upon insects, they greatly control numbers of various insect populations.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • Marsupial moles occasionally burrow their tunnels straight down and may deepen up to 3 meters without any obvious reason.
  • Due to opening backward, the pouch of Marsupial moles remains clean from sand as the animal burrows.
  • One of the most unusual facts about Marsupial moles is their body temperature management: for example, their body temperature can increase abruptly from 15°C to 30°C (59-86 Fahrenheit) without affecting their metabolism.
  • Although their metabolism is generally quite low, it can sharply increase up to 60 times when the animals burrow, giving them a huge amount of energy.
  • Living in the underground environment with low visibility, Marsupial moles have vestigial eyes. In addition, openings of their ears are concealed under their fur.
  • Captive marsupial moles tend to emit squeaking sounds, typically when they are held or interrupted while feeding.


1. Southern Marsupial Mole Wikipedia article -
2. Northern Marsupial Mole Wikipedia article -
3. Southern Marsupial Mole on The IUCN Red List site -
4. Northern Marsupial Mole on The IUCN Red List site -

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