African Civet
Civettictis civetta
Population size
Life Span
15-28 years
kg lbs 
cm inch 
cm inch 

The African civet (Civettictis civetta) is a large type of civet that lives throughout sub-Saharan Africa. It is the last surviving member of its genetic group and is regarded as the largest civet-like species in the African continent. African civets are not felines, despite looking like and behaving like cats, but are more closely related to weasels, mongooses, and other small carnivores. These animals are most well known for their musk that they secrete to mark their territory (called civetone), as used in manufacturing perfume for centuries, and for their striking black and white coloring, making them one of the easiest species of civet to identify.


The African civet has a coarse and wiry fur that varies in color from white to creamy yellow to reddish on the back. The stripes, spots, and blotches are deep brown to black. Horizontal lines are prominent on the hind limbs, and spots are normally present on its midsection and fade into vertical stripes above the forelimbs. Its muzzle is pointed, ears small and rounded. A black band stretches across its small eyes, and two black bands are around its short broad neck. Following the spine of the animal extending from the neck to the base of the tail is the erectile dorsal crest. The hairs of the erectile crest are longer than those of the rest of the pelage. Both males and females have perineal and anal glands, which are bigger in males.




An abundant and widespread species in Africa, the African civet is found from southern Somalia on the east coast, to Senegal on the west coast. Its range extends to include Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa in the south, although it is more limited and generally found only in the north-eastern parts of these countries. These civets also occupy the island of Zanzibar. They live both in open country and in the forest but seem to need a covering of thicket or tall grasses to provide daytime safety. It is rarely found in Africa’s arid regions but usually occurs close to water systems that are permanent.

African Civet habitat map

Climate zones

African Civet habitat map
African Civet
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Habits and Lifestyle

African civets are mostly nocturnal but may sometimes be seen during the morning or the afternoon on cloudy days. Peak activity is 1-2 hours before sunset until around midnight. During the daytime, these animals sleep in dense grass near water, and only mothers with their young have a nest. The nests are located in holes that have been made by other animals or they are under tangled roots. African civets are solitary, except when they are breeding. There is limited knowledge of their habits because of their nocturnal and secretive lifestyle. Although solitary, they use a range of visual, auditory, and olfactory methods of communication. Being territorial, they mark their territory when crouching and pressing their perineal glands against something. If an African civet feels threatened, it raises its dorsal crest to make itself look larger and thus more formidable and dangerous to attack. African civets can make three kinds of sounds: a scream, a growl, and a cough-spit, but the most common sound they make is the 'ha ha ha' they use when making contact.

Seasonal behavior

Diet and Nutrition

African civets are omnivorous. They eat mainly wild fruit, rodents, insects (grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, and termites), carrion, eggs, reptiles, and birds.

Mating Habits

60-71 days
1-4 pups
14-16 weeks

African civets are only seen together during mating, which suggests that they might be polygynous. August to January, the warm, wet summer months, is when mating takes place, this time being favored due to the large numbers of insects. Females have 2 or 3 litters during a year, with gestation lasting for 60 to 71 days. Litters contain one to four young, and they are born in a nest made in a hollow tree trunk or a hole. Civet babies are covered in dark, short fur. They can crawl at birth, and their hind legs support their body when they are 5 days old. They begin to leave the nest from 17-18 days, and at about 2 weeks they show their first indication of play behavior. The cubs each feed on their mother’s milk for about 6 weeks, then begin eating solid food, before weaning takes place at 14 to 16 weeks. A female African civet attains reproductive maturity at around 1 year of age, while males start to breed earlier, from 9 to 12 months of age.


Population threats

African civets are threatened by both deforestation and habitat loss and in the past, across the continent, they have been killed by trophy hunters. One of the main threats is people’s desire for their musk, and they are also often sold in Nigerian bushmeat markets for their skin and white meat. They may also be affected by rare strains of rabies, probably transmitted by the slender mongoose.

Population number

According to IUCN, African civet is common and has a wide distribution range but no overall population estimate is available. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List.

Ecological niche

African civets may affect predator populations, as items of prey for leopards, lions, large snakes, and crocodiles.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • African civets can eat items that are either poisonous or distasteful for most mammals, including millipedes, highly-decayed carrion, and the fruit of Strychnos.
  • Each African civet can secrete as much as 4 g of musk in a week. For centuries, people have been collecting musk from these animals.
  • The strong odor of an African civet’s musk can last for as long as 3 months.
  • Each African civet’s body has a unique pattern of spots and streaks.
  • ‘Afrikaanse civet’ is the name given to these animals in the local Afrikaan language.

Coloring Pages


1. African Civet Wikipedia article -
2. African Civet on The IUCN Red List site -

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